Geographical position
Chaharmahal va Bakhtiary province with 16532 sq. km. is situated between to 31° 09' North latitude and also to 32° 48' East longitude. This Province located at the center of Zagros Mountains, between the internal mountains and Isfahan mountains. This province is limited to Isfahan from the north and the East, from the west to Khoozestan province, from the south to kohkilooyeh and Boyer Ahmad and from the Northwest to Lorestan province.
According to the lost division of our country (political) this province is divided into 6 towns, 24 cities, 15 parts and 34 village . This region owns one percent of the whole country, which is in the bed of zagros. About %10 of water sources are in this province. Because of high mountains, the humid Mediterranean winds evacuate all over these places. This province has a very proper rain. Frequently at the mountains and height, we have snowing. Snow covered heights is one of the regional aspects. Because mountain creation is young in this place, natural calamities like Earth quake – flood and the land movement are observed in most of the places.
Also freezing , chilling , drought and the thunderstorm are of its natural disaster. Rain and snow over the heights make two branches called karoon and Zayandeh Rood Rivers. Karoon is 13800 and Zayandehrood is 2720 sq. km. Zayandeh rood, Karoon, Karkheh and Dez Rivers are branched from Zagros heights. These four rivers are the main water sources in the region. About %45 to %50 of our country water sources is provide in this province. The charming beautiful nature in this province, especially in spring, summer and winter attracts many travelers from inside and outside of the country.
Chaharmahal va Bakhtiary has various climate. The rains are mostly affected by Mediterranean flows. These flows come from the west and the southwest and have an effect of a bout 8 months on the region. The rain starts from October. In January it will go to the top and in may it will decrease, %19 of rain is fallen in January more than %90 percent of rain is between November to April. Less than %10 percent of rain is from June to October.
The west height of the province with yearly 1600 mm rain is the most rainy regen. The heights of sabzKooh has an average of 1400 mm, the southwest with 900 mm rain are the second and the third respectively. As a matter of rain, the lowest is the East and the north East area with yearly rainfall about 250 to 300 mm. The average of the rain in the whole province is about 560 mm. Because of the mountainous region of the province, and knowing the fact of the height affect on the temperature, there will be different regions as matter of temperature. The Max absolute temp has been recorded in Lordegan synoptic station with 47.5° and the Min absolute Temp in Dezzak climatolgical station with -34.5° . The most frequency freezing days, has been taken place in 1962 with 171 days in Chelgerd (Koohrang) the least absolute freezing days also has been taken place in Lordegan station with 58 day (the year 1998).
The main flows affecting the weather of the province
A) The winter flows:
In winter season, our country is a affected by Siberia high pressure flows. The Siberian high pressure is spreading all over the Asia. Siberian High Pressure transfers the polar continental mass from the north west to the west. The results are obsolute minimum temperature of about 32 in Shahrekord and -34 in Koohrang, also 120 freezing days in Shahrekord and more than -125 freezing days in the north west of the province.
Another High Pressure mass is in the north Atlantic. This H.P.mass affects on the regional flows in two ways:
1 - A flow that brings the Mediterranean humid and also Atlantic weather to the country (Tropical Maritime). This flow is usually Mediterranean low pressure, and causes more than %60 of precipitation in Iran. The western - Eastern flows will be continued till the middle of spring. In summer they will be stopped. These humid flows hits to the cold flows of central Asia and Siberian flows and this will lead to a lot of rain and snow in the north west of Iran.
2 - The North Atlantic flows a part of which is Azures mass ,will be pushed to the north Europe and Scandinavian at the beginning, then over the black sea and Ghafghaz enters to the north west of Iran. This mass of weather is actually polar Maritime. But its identity will be chaned during this distance.
B) Summer Flows:
In Summer the core of LP (is called the thermal low pressure) affects the region from the south. This core is the droughty center of two H.P. of the north Atlantic, that will pass over the Eastern Europe warm lands and then from the northwest enters in Iran.
C) Sudanese low pressure system:
In addition to Mediterranean flows, Sudanic L.P. in winter and spring affect on the south, the south west and some times the west weather of the country. Strong raining in the southwest is as a cause of the Sudanic l.p. The combination of flows at the land and high levels of atmosphere, it will be activated and make rain a flood. Some times a combination between Sudanic and Mediterranean flows will lead to very strong rain and floody precipitation. At the time of sudanic flow activation, 145 mm in Koohrang (in Mars 1998) 70 mm in Lordagan and Malkhlifeh, has been reported during a 24 hours .
Koopen Division:
According to koopen division, the east of the province is a temperate and cold region with dry and warm summer, (Dcas). For example we can consider Shahrekord station and Emam Gheis on this condition. Heights of 2500 to 3000 meters have cold temperate and dry summer (DCAS) like chelgerd(kohrang) . The western regions are covered of Acorn Jungles. Like semi hot regions of Lordegan and Monj,with warm and dry summer. The heights of above 3000 meters has mountainous climate (H) and is always snow covered.
Appointing the region of the central part of Iran by suggested method (Dr. Karimi):
Using this method Chaharmahal va Bakhtiary is divided into 6 regions:
1 - Elevated regions more than 3500 meters from the sea,with poor plant covering, short period of plant growth and most of the time snow covered.
2 - Temperate humid region and very cold, next to the heights, slightly surface of the province, poor plant covering Just soap wort plant and also Juniper grow in these areas.
3 - Semi humid cold temperate region has got most of the province climate. The central parts of province and many plains are situated in this region. It consists of central parts like shalamzar, Laran, Ben and a part of Saman and central part o f Borujen – Farsan town – Naghan in Ardal town.
4 - Cold humid temperate region: It is under the region number 3 (semi humid cold temperate),but amount of rain is a little more in this region. It is consist of Emamgheis in Boroojen,and Dinaran part of Ardal ,sodejan and marghmalek in shahrekord town.
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Chaharmahal Va Bakhtiari Meteorological Headquarter